Archive for the ‘Construction’ Category

Competition rises among factories and department stores in North Korea: Delivery services now available

Friday, September 5th, 2014

Institute for Far Easter Studies (IFES)
2014-9-4

It appears that some factories and department stores in North Korea have begun to implement a delivery service in response to customer demand. This new customer-oriented service seems to have arisen out of the Kim Jong Un regime’s goal of increasing autonomy and competition among businesses.

According to the newest issue of “Choguk” [Joguk] (“Motherland”, September 2014), a media outlet associated with the General Association of Korean Residents in Japan, North Korea’s representative state-run department store Pyongyang Department Store No. 1 has been making efforts to diversify the services offered to its customers. The article specifically revealed a personal delivery service, saying, “Salespersons have responded to the public’s requests and have begun to deliver ordered products to sell directly to customers at their doorsteps.”

Salespersons from Pyongyang Department Store No. 1 have also been travelling to power plants, mining sites, textile mills, farms and other worksites to sell products directly to workers and farmers. Other businesses, such as the Potong River Shoe Factory, have also been diversifying customer services. For example, employees now visit customers’ homes to measure shoe size and satisfy other requests they may have when placing an order for shoes.

The Daedong River Passenger Transport Company in Pyongyang is currently offering a taxi dispatching service to customers who call in and request a pickup. Similar to the workings of South Korea’s taxi service, North Koreans may simply dial “186” to be connected to the closest dispatch office, which then sends out a taxi to pick up the customer.

On the other hand, North Korea has recognized the problem of the low-quality products and poor construction work and has emphasized that efforts must be made to remedy these areas. In the most recent issue of the quarterly academic journal, Kyongje Yongu [Economic Research] (2014, Issue 3), one article points out problems in the poor quality of North Korean-made products and construction, saying, “Neglect in quality growth is an outdated attitude.”

Specifically, the article mentions the problem of promising completion of construction according to deadlines: “Technical regulations and construction methods are disregarded when projects are rushed to be finished by their completion date, which is often decided in advance to coincide with a holiday or anniversary.

Currently, North Korea has undertaken large-scale construction operations to finish the Kim Chaek University of Technology’s faculty apartments, the Pyongyang Orphanage and Nursery, the North Pyongan Chongchon River Power Plant and other projects spanning various fields. The goal is to complete these projects concurrently with the anniversary of the foundation of the Worker’s Party of Korea (October 10).

At construction sites around North Korea, it appears that all available resources are being mobilized to engage in a so-called “speed battle” with these construction deadlines. The side effect of this huge emphasis on speed has resulted in many instances of poor construction, like the collapse of the 23-floor apartment building in Pyongyang’s Ansan-1-dong back in May.

The article also points out, “Despite attempting to work toward self-sustainability, there are events where lower quality, alternative products are being used below the material requirements that are leading to lowered quality work.” Furthermore, the article emphasizes, “Production and circulation of faulty products or products which cause harm to the health or lifestyle of the people must be stopped.”

It has also been reported that corruption is taking place at factories and construction sites, with party officials or intermediary managers amassing riches by siphoning off materials and pocketing the money. This leads to further problems in product quality and defectiveness.

Due to the issues of poor construction and product quality, the article points out, “There are many areas in our material economic life that fall behind the global trend,” but “if the quality of products and buildings are improved, the need to consider products from other countries will wane.”

In order to solve these problems, the article suggests implementing product standardization and specialization and encourages research in industrial design.

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Mixed priorities in construction in Hyesan

Thursday, July 10th, 2014

According to the Daily NK:

Kim Jong Eun recently ordered an education center for orphans in Hyesan to be rebuilt and expanded, Daily NK has learned. The North Korean leader is also said to have personally guaranteed the necessary materials for the project. However, this is fostering discontent within the local construction sector.

“The construction process there has been rapid since the inputs were guaranteed by the Marshal, so they are now in the closing stages,” a source from the Yangkang Province capital reported to Daily NK on the 11th.

The decision to place the state’s strength behind the project has, the inside source said, caused anger in other construction units, since only one of many is receiving inputs of money and materials from Pyongyang, while others are being forced to sustain themselves.

“Other construction projects, including apartments for local people to live in, are being put back,” the source said. “It’s common to see workers messing about and killing time on construction sites. Some houses in the city have been demolished to build apartments, but in some areas that construction hasn’t even started yet.”

According to citywide sources, there are numerous construction projects underway in Hyesan these days, including an indoor stadium, an eatery called Amrokgak, and civilian apartment blocks. However, as the source noted, most are progressing slowly due to chronic supply shortages, while the education center for orphans, which got underway much later than most others, is moving at lightning speed in comparison.

Facilities exist in each province of North Korea to educate parentless children up to the age of 15. The system is divided into four sectors: up to four years of age, four and five years of age, elementary school age (6~9), and middle school age (10~15). Each province has at least one of each type. The facility in Hyesan caters to the latter two age cohorts.

“Clothes and food there are provided by the center,” the source explained, adding that electricity is also more predictable there than in most other parts of the city.

However, she cautioned, “It’s unwise to have complete faith in units receiving special treatment. Even a Pyongyang apartment block collapsed in May, and it was for senior people so they probably used good materials.”

It is not clear why the Kim regime is offering special treatment to this particular site, though it may be because foreigners risk doing harm to North Korea’s public image by photographing them, or simply to bring under control the groups of Kotjebis that tend to linger around the station and marketplaces. Irrespective of either goal, it also allows for propaganda about Kim Jong Eun’s “love for the young,” a core propaganda trope that surrounds all North Korean leaders. Kim Jong Eun has visited a large number of education facilities in the first years of his rule to emphasize his concern for the development of the country’s young generation.

Read the full story here:
Hyesan Orphans Given Special Treatment
Daily NK
2014-7-10

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North Korea encourages completion of large-scale projects to coincide with 2015 Party Foundation Day

Thursday, June 12th, 2014

Institute for Far Eastern Studies (IFES)
2014-6-12

North Korea is attempting to complete the construction of a large scale stockbreeding base and a power plant as symbols of “self-rehabilitation” by October 10, 2015 to coincide with the 70th anniversary of the foundation of the Worker’s Party of Korea (WPK). Adorned with these economic achievements, next year’s Party Foundation Day will seek to inspire confidence in the North Korean people and strengthen the foundation of the Kim Jong Un regime.

The Choson Sinbo, a news affiliate of the pro-North Korean General Association of Korean Residents in Japan, published an article on June 2, 2014 which introduces the Sepho County area of Kangwon Province and the current situation of construction at the stockbreeding complex, reporting that “all construction is planned to be completed by next year’s Party Foundation Day.” Sepho Tableland Construction Company, which began construction of the Sepho County stockbreeding complex toward the end of 2012, is a national company propagandized by Kim Jong Un as the “Great Plan for the Transformation of Nature.”

The construction of the North Pyongan Chongchon River Power Plant, another one of North Korea’s large scale projects, began in January 2013 and is also projected to be finished by next year’s anniversary. Secretary of the Worker’s Party of Korea Kim Ki Nam was quoted at an April 10, 2014 Pyongyang mass rally, saying, “We must magnificently complete the Chongchon River Power Plant and Sepho County Stockbreeding Base by the Party’s 70th anniversary as a proud gift to our motherland.”

The Chongchon River Power Plant and the Sepho Tableland have been chosen as the two main tasks to be completed in celebration of next year’s anniversary of the foundation of the WPK. The news outlet of the Worker’s Party, the Rodong Sinmun, pointed out in a May 11, 2014 article that the Chongchon River Power Plant will help alleviate the nation’s electricity shortage and stand as a symbol for the nation’s “self-rehabilitation spirit.”

In the past, North Korea has revealed new buildings and symbolic structures before and after major anniversaries in order to brighten the public mood; however, the Kim Jong Un regime’s decision to undertake two large-scale construction projects and finish them both by the anniversary date is worthy of attention.

North Korea is expected to raise their agricultural production goals based on the successful completion of the Sepho Tableland and Chongchon River Power Plant. In his letter to the National Conference of Agricultural Subworkteam Leaders in February 2014, Kim Jong Un stated, “From the year 2015, when we will greet the 70th anniversary of the founding of the Workers’ Party of Korea, [the agricultural sector] must hit higher grain production targets.”

Coinciding with the projected agricultural increase, the Choson Sinbo reported that production of livestock will also increase with the completion of the Sepho Tableland: “Annual meat production is expected to increase in stages, from five thousand tons in 2017 to ten thousand tons annually by the year 2020.” Provided that these two large-scale projects can be completed according to plan and produce successful results, it is expected that Kim Jong Un’s position within the Party will be strengthened considerably.

As much as the Sepho Tableland and Chongchon River Power Plant give confidence to the North Korean people that their food shortage problem is being solved, it is also assumed that Kim Jong Un will use the success of these projects in order to begin a legacy of his own “achievements.”

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Pyongyang building collapse identified (UPDATED)

Sunday, May 18th, 2014

UPDATE 8 (2014-7-7): NK News reports that the DPRK requested assistance in relationship to the collapsed building.

“The Korea Rescue Association got a request from the ‘General Bureau of Red Star Construction’ for assistance related to the Pyongyang apartment collapse, [and] on July 6th they submitted a request to visit North Korea,” a Daily NK translation of the statement said.

The statement added that the Korea Rescue Association requested entry into North Korea on June 26 to further investigate the situation, but were still awaiting a decision.

Unusually, the request for South Korean assistance appears to have come nearly four weeks after the May 13 accident occurred, on June 9.

UPDATE 7 (2014-7-3): NK News provides independent corroboration to North Korean claims that a Pyongyang apartment block collapsed on May 13, confirming the subsequent search, rescue and clean-up operation was completed in under just four days.

UPDATE 6 (2014-6-12): The Daily NK reports that  rumors are circulating in Pyongyang that the building collapse was the fault of Jang Song-thaek.

UPDATE 5 (2014-6-3): NK News has an exclusive report done with All Source Analysis on the building collapse. Includes great information and the first satellite images of the site after the collapse.

UPDATE 4 (2014-5-24): The Daily NK offers information purported to come from Pyongyang.

UPDATE 3 (2014-5-22): Everyone seems to agree that the decision to go public was made only after there was “nothing more to see here”. The motivation for going public with this story is unknown–even today accidents resulting in loss of life are rarely reported in the DPRK media. There are two (at least) theories. One theory is that foreign reporters were tipped off and began calling North Korean embassies asking questions. A second theory is that North Koreans were spreading news of the collapse via cell phone so the government needed to take public action. These theories are not mutually exclusive. We still do not know when exactly the building collapsed or how many were injured or killed. None of the injured victims have appeared in the DPRK media.

The speed with which the rubble was removed from the site is also remarkable. Where was it taken? Maybe one day a satellite image will appear that reveals the answer. However, judging from the official photos, it appears to me that some rubble was not removed, it was simply covered over with dirt.

UPDATE 2 (2014-5-21): Kim Jong-un followed up the building collapse with a visit to the Taesongsan General Hospital where he met with injured soldiers (construction workers?) and orphans. If there were any survivors from the collapsed building at the hospital, the media reports did not mention them. Next he visited new apartment housing for instructors at Kim Chaek University of Technology. Let’s hope these apartment buildings don’t collapse.

UPDATE 1 (2014-5-19): This was picked up by the following media: The Diplomat, 노컷뉴스, Radio Free Asia, 국제신문, Reuters. The Choson Ilbo used the information from this report but did not cite the source.

ORIGINAL POST (2014-5-18):

KCNA-collapse-building

Phyongchon-building-collapse-2

KCNA has announced the tragic collapse of a high-rise apartment building in Phyongchon District:

It is the consistent stand of the Workers’ Party of Korea and the state to prioritize the interests and conveniences of the people and hold them absolute and protect their lives and properties. But there occurred a serious accident in the construction site in Phyongchon District, Pyongyang on May 13 as the construction of an apartment house was not done properly and officials supervised and controlled it in an irresponsible manner. The accident claimed casualties. Right after the accident the state emergency mechanism was put into action to conduct an intensive campaign to rescue survivors, treat the wounded and arrange the scene of the accident. The rescue operation came to an end on May 17. Minister of People’s Security Choe Pu Il, General Officer of the Korean People’s Internal Security Forces Sonu Hyong Chol, Chairman of the Pyongyang City People’s Committee Cha Hui Rim, Chief Secretary of Phyongchon District Committee of the WPK Ri Yong Sik and other officials concerned met the bereaved families, citizens in the district and other Pyongyangites to express deep consolation and apology. Choe Pu Il said the responsibility for the accident rests with him as he failed to uphold well the WPK’s policy of love for the people. He repented of himself, saying that he failed to find out factors that can put at risk the lives and properties of the people and to take thorough-going measures, thereby causing an unimaginable accident. With nothing can he atone for the crime he committed against the people and he can never be pardoned, he said, repeatedly expressing deep apology to the bereaved families and other Pyongyang citizens. He made a firm pledge to make sure that the Ministry of People’s Security becomes a genuine security organ which always protects the interests, lives and properties of the people, true to the party’s noble intention of putting the popular masses above all. Sonu Hyong Chol said that he was chiefly to blame for the accident as he was in charge of the construction. He expressed heart-felt consolation and sympathy to the victims and the bereaved families and said he was making an apology, his head bent, to other Pyongyang citizens who were greatly shocked by the recent accident. The party has always stressed the importance of raising the quality of structure, but he did the construction in a slipshod manner as he did not have the proper stand of serving the people, thus causing such a serious accident, he said, making a solemn determination to do utmost to eradicate the aftermath of the accident and bring the living of the bereaved families to normal as early as possible. Cha Hui Rim said that the party has always called on the officials to become genuine and faithful servants of the people but he failed to have the proper control over the construction of the apartment houses as a man responsible for the living of the citizens of the capital city, thereby causing such a serious accident. He has no face to stand before the bereaved families and other Pyongyang citizens and feels deep compunction for them, he said, pledging to make sure that the officials of the Pyongyang City People’s Committee do their utmost to alleviate even a little the pain of the victims and the bereaved families and bring their living to normal at the earliest possible date and to prevent the recurrence of similar accident. Ri Yong Sik said that seeing for himself the victims in the scene of the accident, he felt as if his heart were falling apart and was too shocked to cry. He added that he could not raise his head for his guilty conscience as he failed to protect the precious lives of the people so much valued and loved by the party. He made an apology to the bereaved families and to the citizens in the district again, vowing to come to senses, though belatedly, and motivate the officials in the district to bring the living of the bereaved families to normal, take good care of them, find out every possible cause of accidents and take preventive measures and thus fully guarantee the lives and security of the people. Kim Su Gil, chief secretary of the Pyongyang City Committee of the WPK, said that the recent unexpected accident caused damage but there is loving care of our mother party which takes care of all people of the country and relieves their pain, adding that Marshal Kim Jong Un sat up all night, feeling painful after being told about the accident, instructed leading officials of the party, state and the army to rush to the scene, putting aside all other affairs, and command the rescue operation to recover from the damage as early as possible. All Pyongyang citizens are sharing sorrow with the bereaved families and victims, he said, adding that the party and the state are taking effective emergency steps to bring the living of the families of victims to normal and provide them with new houses. He called on all to overcome sorrow with courage.

Based on information in KCNA, I can offer a satellite image of the collapsed building (pre-collapse):

Collapsed building-Google-earth

The building was approximately 23 stories tall and approximately 15m x 23m per floor. Construction on the building began between May and September 2011 (image below)

Collapsed-building-September-2011

It is rather remarkable that the entire site could be cleared of debris in just four days. Additionally, I cannot see any serious damage to the surrounding buildings, though coverage is scarce. The neighborhood in which the collapsed building is located contains no less than 17  high-rises that are either under construction or recently completed. If I was living in one of these buildings I would not be feeling very confident right now.

Phyongchon-collapsed-building

These buildings were part of the DPRK’s speed housing construction campaign to celebrate Kim Il-sung’s 100th birthday. Here is coverage in the New York Times. Here is coverage in Yonhap. Here is coverage in NK News. Here is coverage in the Wall Street Journal. Here is coverage by Choson Exchange. Here is coverage in the Washington Post. Here is coverage in the Daily NK.

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May Day Stadium Under Renovation

Thursday, April 3rd, 2014

Here is a December 2013 satellite image of the renovation (currently under way):

May-day-2013-12-1

 

My comments are in this NK News article

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North Korea promoting localization of raw materials for light and construction industries

Monday, January 20th, 2014

Institute for Far Eastern Studies (IFES)
2014-1-20

North Korea is encouraging “localization” of raw materials in light and construction industries from this year to improve the lives of the North Korean people.

On January 7, Rodong Sinmun introduced that various Cabinet organizations were espousing the New Year’s address of Kim Jong Un. It reported, “The Ministry of Light Industry’s executives and employees are engaging in discussions to explore ways to increase localization of raw materials in light industry factories.”

Pyongyang City rally was held earlier this month at the Kim Il Sung Square pledging to accomplish national tasks put forward by Kim Jong Un. Tong Jong Ho, Minister of Construction and Building-Materials Industry delivered a speech that vowed to “make an unprecedented leap in localization of building materials (cement, glass, metals, and other construction materials),” by repairing building materials factories in all provinces.

The Choson Sinbo, pro-North Korean newspaper in Japan reported on January 2 that at the New Year Meeting at the Pyongyang Socks Factory, the plant manager, Lee Sung Hui made a speech and promised to “raise the level of socks production and localization of raw materials to a higher level in Vinalon and PP fibers (synthetic) this year.”

North Korea is promoting light and construction industries as the key sectors to improve the living standards of the people and asserting localization of raw materials should take precedence to make advancement in these fields.

In his New Year message, Kim Jong Un emphasized that the lighting industry had a “significant role in improving people’s lives,” and the construction sector was “at the frontline to providing a place of happiness for the people.”

In particular, he encouraged modernization of factories in light industry and directed normalization of production and placed great importance on localization of raw materials.

Many experts analyze the rising emphasis on the localization of raw materials this year reflect the intentions of the North Korean authorities to achieve realistic and achievable policy goals first. However, localization of facilities entail construction of domestic production base but this is met with limitations such as international sanctions and lack of foreign currency which is not an easy issue that can be resolved in a short period.

From 2012, North Korea’s launch of a long-range rocket and third nuclear test was accompanied with rising weight on the importance of localization of equipment and technology. On December 3, 2013, Rodong Sinmun carried an article entitled, “Localization and National Pride,” that reported on the onsite inspection visits by Kim Jong Un to various economic sectors where he underscored the importance of “equipment, materials, and elements of localization” and “our strengths and technology” on many occasions.

North Korea acclaimed the launch of long-range rocket in December 2012 was a “successful launch of a satellite based on 100 percent domestic science and technology.” Then in February last year immediately following the nuclear test, it boasted, “Thrilling clap of independent nuclear thunder broke out based on 100 percent of our own wisdom and technology.”

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Building the economy and construction projects emphasized once again

Friday, December 27th, 2013

Institute for Far Eastern Studies (IFES)
2013-12-27

In an effort to restore the mood of economic development following the ‘terror politics’ created from the execution of Jang Song Thaek, North Korean state media is beginning to emphasize “construction of a powerful economy” and “improvement of people’s lives” once again.

Rodong Shinmun reported on December 19, 2013 that all fields reached their production plans for the year, describing (on page 3) exemplary cases of various party organizations that upheld the legacies of Kim Jong Il and “displayed best practices that actively contributed to improving people’s lives.”

In one article (“Advancement in Science and Technology Is the Lifeline of Constructing a Powerful Economy and Improving People’s Lives”) the importance of science and technology was emphasized. It claimed, “breakthrough in science and technology is the best way to achieve a miracle and innovation in production while protecting the dignity of the nation in the era of knowledge economy.”

Korean Central Television, Korean Central Broadcasting, and Pyongyang Broadcasting encouraged its people to realize “new miracle, new record” in the production fields emphasizing the goals of the Kim Jong Un regime, “construction of economic powerhouse,” and “construction of civilized socialist nation.”

In addition, the military was presented with modern fishing boats. Kim Jong Un’s gift to the military may be interpreted as a display of interest in improving the welfare of soldiers. Kim Jong Un was reported to have made an on-site inspection at the “8.25 Fishery” military unit and expressed interest in the welfare of the soldiers.

Kim Jong Un is also continuing to commend “best citizens” as he delivered letters of appreciation to recognize those that displayed exceptional performance at the construction sites of Sepho Tableland and the residential complex for Kim Il Sung University (KISU) faculty members.

In the Kim Jong Un era, state media is continuing to emphasize the achievements in the construction sectors, calling these times a “new heyday of juche construction.” It listed last year’s construction achievements: completion of Changjon Street, People’s Theatre, Pyongyang Children’s Department Store, Rungra People’s Pleasure Park, People’s Outdoor Skating Rink, Pyongyang Folk Park, and Ryugyong Health Complex.

In addition, it boasted that Munsu Water Park was “miraculously” completed in only nine months. Other achievements were listed: War Memorial, Mirim Riding Club, Ryugyong Dental Hospital, Okryu Children’s Hospital, Unha Scientists Street, and KISU faculty apartment complex.

North Korea is propagating these achievements, heralding the Kim Jong Un era as the “glory days of construction” to promote his accomplishments and consolidate his power base.

During his own period of succession, Kim Jong Il sought the support of the masses by emphasizing construction of Changgwang and Munsu Streets and landmarks such as Juche Tower, Kaeson Mun (Gate of Triumphant Return), and Pyongyang Maternity Hospital.

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Evaluation of Kim Jong Un’s first two years: The rise in construction of sports and entertainment facilities and exports to China

Wednesday, October 16th, 2013

Institute for Far Eastern Studies (IFES)
2013-10-16

The first chairman of the National Defence Commission of North Korea, Kim Jong Un, took office two years ago. Since then, construction of sports and entertainment facilities are reported to have increased considerably. According to the South Korean Ministry of Unification, North Korea’s Pyongyang Folk Park (September 2012), Taesongsan General Hospital (March 2013), and Haedanghwa Service Complex (April 2013) were recently completed. Since the launch of the Kim Jong Un regime, the Masik Pass Ski Resort and other similar sports facilities have been undertaken and are nearing completion.

In addition, the People’s Theatre (April 2012), Rungna People’s Pleasure Ground (opened in July 2012), Sunrise Restaurant (September 2012), and Unification Street Center (September 2012) have been recently renovated. In addition, the Mirim Riding Club, Pyongyang Gymnasium, Munsu Wading Pool, Aprok (Yalu) River Amusement park, Karma Hotel, and New Day Hotel and other hotels around Pyongyang are currently under renovation and repair. Entertainment and sports facilities around other major cities are being constructed as well. Furthermore, after the successful launch of Kwangmyongsong 3-2 last December, North Korea has begun to construct major residential complexes for scientists, granting them preferential housing in Unha scientist residence, Kim Il Sung University educator residence, and Pyongsong residence. Other large-scale housing projects are also reported to be under development.

In the wake of major celebrations in North Korea — such as the 100th anniversary of the birth of Kim Il Sung and 60-year anniversary of the “Victory in the Fatherland Liberation War” — a large memorial was erected and existing facilities were repaired. Specifically, the Korean People’s Army Exhibition of Arms and Equipment, Kumsusan Memorial Palace, War Victory Monument, and the Cemetery of the Fallen Fighters of the KPA were refurbished.

Unlike the large-scale construction of sports and entertainment facilities, new constructions of harbors, roads, power plants and other social overhead capital (SOC) is reported to be in decline.

Last August, North Korea’s trade with China has shown an 8 percent increase in exports and 6 percent decrease in imports, following a similar trend from last year. According to the South Korean Ministry of Unification, North Korea’s current trade volume with China is reported to be 4 billion USD (1.89 billion USD in exports and 2.2 billion USD in imports).

North Korea’s most popular export items are mineral resources such anthracite, coal, and iron ore. In the case of clothing products — which are mostly consigned processing — there has been an increase of 42 percent (200 million USD) against the previous year. Major categories of imports from China are crude oil, food, and fertilizers. Compared to the previous year, food imports have declined 57 percent (17.4 million tons), and fertilizer and crude oil imports are also showing gradual reduction at 27 percent (18.3 million tons) and 6 percent (34.6 million tons), respectively.

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DPRK publicizes nanotech sector

Friday, August 2nd, 2013

According to Yonhap:

North Korea is moving to grow its nanotech industry and produce high-tech products, Pyongyang’s state media reported Friday.

The Rodong Sinmun newspaper, an organ of the Workers’ Party of Korea (WPK), said in an article that the country’s nanotech center that was recently built has made advances in medicine, energy, environmental conservation, light industry and farming.

Nanotechnology involves controlling matter on a molecular scale, leading to the creation of materials of high commercial value and with wide-ranging benefits.

The newspaper monitored in Seoul said the nanotech center, built under the guidance of North Korean leader Kim Jong-un, has played a key part in developing the sector. It added that roughly 1,000 nano products and prototypes were on display at the 10th nano science exhibition that opened on Tuesday.

North Korean media started mentioning the nanotech center in April, although no detail was made public on when it was established.

It said the country’s technicians from universities and laboratories have been able to develop agricultural sterilizers, growth accelerators, air cleaners and shoes.

The daily also said the total number of products showcased at the exhibit represents a 10-fold increase from just four years ago, highlighting the progress made by the country in the next-generation technology.

The latest news article follows another report by the North’s Korean Central News Agency that claimed in May that many practical products to cope with athlete’s foot have reached consumers in the communist country.

In June, the Choson Sinbo, a Japan-based pro-Pyongyang newspaper, said an alcoholic beverage made using nano technology enjoyed popularity in Pyongyang.

Related to the media reports, Lim Eul-chul, a research professor at Kyungnam University and North Korea expert, said emphasis on high-tech industries has become more pronounced since Kim’s ascension to power in late 2011.

He speculated that the leader may be pushing for technological advances to bolster economic growth and stimulate positive social change.

Here is a report from KCNA (2013-8-5):

Nano-technology Exhibition Held in DPRK

Pyongyang, August 5 (KCNA) — The 10th national sci-tech presentation and show in the field of nano-technology took place here from July 30 to August 2.

Attending the presentation and show were more than 20 units, including the State Academy of Sciences. 130 odd scientific papers were presented and at least 1 000 pieces of products in 260 kinds, among them nano-science and technology books, exhibited in the form of object, model and chart.

The products included nano germicide, nano photosynthetic accelerant and nano microelement compound invented by the Agricultural Nano Technology Institute under the Academy of Agricultural Science, which have been applied to hundreds of thousands of hectares of farmlands in several years to prove effective.

Nano combined antibacterial agent, nano water-purifying agent and functional nano toothbrush, produced by the Okryu Foodstuff-processing Company under the General Bureau of Public Service, drew the attention of visitors. There were also such nano health drinks, made with natural surface active agent, as nano gold and silver spring waters and nano gold and silver liquors.

Nano gold liquor helps preserve health and treat different diseases.

Nano garments, presented by the Myonghung High-tech Materials Company, have functions of antibiosis, destruction of organic matter and prevention of ultraviolet rays.

The Taedonggang Technology Company displayed carbon nano pipe and chart showing its production process.

Pyongyang Medical College of Kim Il Sung University presented nano platinum injection, nano compound plastic denture material and Saengdangssuk injection.

Besides, scientific institutes and educational establishments presented atomic force microscope, X-ray diffraction analyzer, scanning tunneling microscope and other products used in the field of nano measurement.

Achievements and experiences, gained in the field of nano technology were exchanged at the presentation and show.

And from IFES:

North Korea established nano technology center
Institute for Far Eastern Studies (IFES)
2013-8-8

North Korea’s interest in nanotechnology, the state-of-the-art science in the 21st century, is rapidly increasing.

Rodong Sinmun,the official newspaper of the Workers’ Party released an article titled “The Bright Future of the Nanotechnology,” on August 1. The Tenth Annual Nanotechnology Science and Technology Conference and Exhibition opened on July 30 and the venue of this event, National Nanotechnology Center was described in detail in the article.

The newspaper elaborated, “The National Nanotechnology Center was built under the guidance of our leader Kim Jong Un and he guided us to widely announced our achievements and experiences in this field.”

National Nanotechnology Center appeared on North Korean media occasionally from this April this year. The center is likely to have been constructed under the guidance of Kim Jong Un for the development and commercialization of nanotechnology.

Rodong Sinmunreported that nanotechnology is making great progress in the environmental, medicine, energy, agricultural and light industries and introduced nano-products such as agricultural fungicides, nano biological growth promoters, and nano-indoor air purifiers. This event displayed over 1,000 nano technology products from 20 nanotechnology research centers including Kim Il Sung University, Kim Hyong Jik University of Education, Kim Chaek University of Technology and National Academy of Sciences.

Compared to 100 nanotechnology products displayed at the exhibition in 2009, the number has increased ten-fold in just four years. This clearly demonstrates North Korea’s growing fervor and investment in nanotechnology in recent years.

Similar articles about nanotechnology can be found in Choson Sinbo, a Japan-based pro-North Korean newspaper.

Choson Sinboreleased an article on June 22 that gold tassels made with nanotechnology are popular amongst shops and restaurants in Pyongyang. On May 22, the Korean Central News Agency also introduced “nano straw shoes” made with nanosilver and nano titanium that eliminate foot odor and treat athlete’s foot.

Similarly in May 3, Rodong Sinmun announced that nano-antiseptic and germ solutions were invented by scientists and technicians at the National Nanotechnology Center.

The promotion of nanotechnology is not new for North Korea. During Kim Jong Il’s era, the Second Five-Year Plan for development of science and technology (2003-2007) focused on the nano-technology as the main project, and Nano Science and Technology Conference were held annually from 2003. North Korea has been showing unrelenting investment in nanotechnology from the 2000s.

This year marks the second year of Kim Jong Un’s rule and nanotechnology is given continued attention. Kim Jong Un’s proclivity towards nanotechnology is relevant in its goal of achieving economic development through state-of-the-art science and technology. Recently it launched new slogans such as “The Industrial Revolution of the New Century,” and “building an powerhouse of knowledge economy.” Despite the international sanctions it is faced with, North Korea’s plausible option to catch up to the ‘global trend’ will be through science and technology sector.

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Pyongyang seeking to build 100,000 housing units [on hold]

Monday, July 1st, 2013

UPDATE 6 (2013-7-1): The Daily NK reports the effort to construct 100,000 homes in Pyongyang has come to a complete halt. According to the article:

A troubled prestige project to build 100,000 new homes in Pyongyang has been brought to a complete halt under the rule of Kim Jong Eun, and buildings in some areas have fallen into a state of disrepair.

A source from the North Korean capital revealed to Daily NK on July 1st, “The 100,000 homes project has been at a complete halt since Kim Jong Eun took power, and on the outskirts of the city some buildings are half-built and collapsing into a state of disrepair.”

“In this area, people were evacuated in October 2009 so that the construction could commence,” the source went on. “But in many areas those buildings that were begun at that time are still not above the first floor.”

Homes planned as part of the project, which, according to state propaganda, was to form part of celebrations for North Korea’s becoming a “strong and prosperous state” by the 100th anniversary of Kim Il Sung’s birth in April 2012, were expected to feature in propaganda vis-a-vis Kim Jong Eun’s greatness.

However, the project has been plagued by electricity and material shortages from the beginning, sources say, and ultimately could not be completed. In some areas, the construction that did go ahead was poorly done and buildings have subsequently collapsed, which has caused deaths.

The source commented, “From Kim Jong Eun’s perspective the project was promoted so that he could say he was improving the people’s lives. But there were no raw materials and no power, and this caused poor construction; so ultimately it has just been abandoned.”

The North Korean authorities are only genuinely concerned about projects that offer short-term opportunities for public propagation of results, such as water parks and exercise facilities in downtown Pyongyang, the source went on to claim.

Meanwhile, the direct suffering caused by the failed project is falling primarily on those who were moved out of their homes in order for construction to start back in 2009. “In a number of cases, the Party ordered families to move out and live with others temporarily, and here we are, four years on, with multiple families living under one roof,” the source said, adding that the indignity of this is being compounded by mobilization orders calling on people without homes of their own to take part in downtown beautification and cleaning schemes.

I have have posted quite a bit of material on construction in Pyongyang in recent years.  Here are some of the more relevant articles:

1. Mansudae Area Renovation No. 1

2. Mansudae Area Renovation No. 2 

3. Kumgang Street

Read the full story here:
100,000 Homes Project Stopped Dead
Daily NK
Lee Sang Yong
2013-7-1

UPDATE 5 (2011-11-03): The Institute for Far Eastern Studies (IFES) reports on the status of Pyongyang’s residential construction effort.

North Korea Pushing Forward with the Project of Constructing 100,000 Housing Units in Pyongyang

In order to celebrate Kim Il Sung’s centennial birthday next year on April 15, 2012, the plan to build 100,000 private homes in Pyongyang is quickly underway. North Korea has announced its intension to upgrade Pyongyang into a city with over 100,000 homes. Pyongyang’s district of Mansudae is to build over one thousand units of high-rise apartments (77 stories), theaters, parks and other recreational facilities.

The KCNA reported on October 11, “For the next Day of the Sun, Pyongyang will be completely transformed.” The news added, “The construction of private homes has been in progress for five months and is at 70 percent completion. Mansudae District is rapidly changing with skyscrapers and high-rise apartments appearing throughout the city. Construction of theaters and service facilities are also in development.”

Facing Mansudae is [East] Pyongyang [area], another area in Pyongyang under enhancement and has secured over 17,400 square meters of land for multi-purpose service facilities and 9,660 square meters for a public outdoor ice rink. The KCNA elaborated, “The multi-purpose facilities encompass bathhouses, beauty salons, and other latest facilities of convenience. In the public outdoor ice rink, circular ice rink, bleachers and cultural recreational facilities will be built to provide necessary environment for people to enjoy various ice sports.”

Rungrado Recreation Ground is also reported to be rejuvenated with a variety of amusement rides and multipurpose water park. The water park will be equipped with wave pools, waterslides, and health pools.

In addition, Pyongyang is focusing on gardening and exterior beautification projects for private homes and public buildings, including installation of colorful tiles and paints as well as bright neon signs in the streets.

“The Development Project of 100,000 Housing Units in Pyongyang” went into effect since 2009 but talks of reducing the project to 20,000 homes surfaced when it was faced with funding difficulties. However, the original plan of building 100,000 homes has not faltered and appears to be in full swing.

Early this year on January 3, a public rally was held at the Kim Il Sung Square with over 100,000 people present. At that time, the homebuilding project of Pyongyang was announced in which “Pyongyang City will be equipped to enter the era of strong and prosperous nation in all sectors.”

In July 2008, the General Bureau of Capital Construction began a large-scale redevelopment project. Completed a year later on September 2009, 600 old homes mostly built in the 1960s were demolished and in their place an apartment complex with over 800 homes went up. This project received undivided attention from Kim Jong Il, Chang Sung-Thaek, administrative director of the Worker’s Party of Korea, among many other top officials of North Korea.

For North Korea, “The Development Project of 100,000 Housing Units in Pyongyang” has become a symbol of building a strong and prosperous nation.

Additional information:
1. Previous posts on the DPRK’s “2012 Kangsong Taeguk” policies can be found here.

2. Previous posts on “Construction” can be found here.

3. The Pyongyang’s university students are (mostly) involved in construction projects.

4. See photos of the construction by Ray Cunningham here.

UPDATE 4 (2011-7-23): Housing unit construction revised down?


Pictured above (Goole Earth): New housing construction in Rakrang-guyok

For several years, the DPRK has been touting that it will build 100,000 new housing units by 2012. See here, here, and here for background.

This week, many South Korean news outlets reported that the DPRK had significantly downsized that number.  According to Yonhap:

North Korea has dramatically cut its goal of building 100,000 houses by next year, a government source said Monday, amid the North being economically squeezed by the international community for its nuclear and missile programs for years.

After the North started the project in Pyongyang in 2009, as part of its plans to achieve a strong and prosperous country by 2012, the North cut the number of planned houses by 75 percent to 25,000. The year 2012 marks the centennial of the birth of Kim Il-sung, the country’s late founder.

The North, however, is continuing to repair a towering bronze statue of Kim and renovate around the Kumsusan Memorial Palace, where his embalmed body lies, the source said on condition of anonymity, citing policy.

Kim is the father of current leader, Kim Jong-il. The Kims are the subject of a massive personality cult that pervades almost every aspect of North Korean society.

Still, the North has embarked on a project to demolish buildings and facilities in central Pyongyang to make room for high-rise apartments, a theater and a park for senior officials.

The North has begun interior work on one of its landmarks, the 105-story Ryukyong Hotel, which stood unfinished in downtown Pyongyang for nearly 20 years due to a lack of capital.

In 2008, the North resumed construction of the skyscraper, but it appears unlikely for the project to be completed next year. It is believed, however, that the North will finish some floors for use.

The last time that KCTV mentioned the 100,000 housing unit goal was on May 26, 2011…nearly a month ago.  I will keep up to see if it is ever mentioned again.  I would not hold my breath waiting for a lower number to be announced, however.

Using satellite imagery of Pyongyang, I can see appx 200 residential buildings under construction.  They are mostly concentrated in Hyongjesan-guyok.  On average, each of these buildings would have to contain 500 housing units to reach 100,000.  This is not possible given the dimensions of the buildings we can see. Additionally, most of these facilities are a long way from being completed.  With a goal of 25,000, that would mean new buildings on average would only need to contain 125 units…a much more reasonable number.

In terms of residential construction, the government now seems to be focusing its efforts primarily on completing the second phase of the Mansudae Street renovations in time for Kim Il-sung’s 100th birthday. See here and here.

The prestigious units (visited by Kim Jong-il) that have been completed are all in Pyongyang’s Central District: Near the Potong Gate (Google Maps), Near Haebang Hill (Google Maps), and behind the Central Market (Google Maps).  I should point out, however, that these are not the only buildings to be completed.  Other less-prestigious buildings have been completed and occupied.  Also, many villages (ri, 리) outside the capital are being upgraded and provided new facilities.  I am not sure what the procedure is for deciding which villages receive new homes, but it can’t be random.  Being located next to a major highway seems to be an important variable (keeping up appearances).  I am also unsure what the DPRK does with all of the displaced residents. Are they going somewhere else to live with their families?  Are they living in temporary shelters?

The Daily NK and Choson Ilbo also covered this story.

UPDATE 3 (2011 -7-5): Several days ago, Yonhap reported that the DPRK had quietly reduced its goal of building 100,000 housing units by 2012. So of the 200+ buildings that are currently under construction, which projects are priorities? Mansudae Part II for sure (see here and here).  But what else? There are many construction sites that were launched well before the second renovation of the Mansudae area was begun, and the deadline for completion is rapidly approaching.

Well North Korea recently broadcast a propaganda television show touting Pyongyang’s housing construction (along with quite a lot of singing).  I was able to match up this North Korean television footage with satellite imagery of Pyongyang construction sites to help answer this question.  Given the amount of propaganda being used to promote these particular developments, I would say the following three are also 2012 priorities:

Ryongsong-guyok, Chonggye-dong (룡성구역, 청계동)

Click on images for larger versions.  See in Google Maps here.

Hyongjesan-guyok, Sopho-2 Dong (형제산구역, 서포2동)

Click on images for larger versions.  See in Google Maps here.

Rakrang-guyok, Tongsan-dong (락랑구역, 동산동)

Click on images for larger versions.  See in Google Maps here.

The DPRK also recently hosted an architecture expo in Pyongyang. I have uploaded a video of the event to YouTube, and you can watch it here. I was able to match up some of the projects (though not all) with current satellite imagery. Aside from the renovation of the Ryugyong Hotel, there is no publicly available satellite imagery showing that these projects have been launched.

Hyoksin Area (혁신)

Ryugyong Area (류경)

Additional Informaiton

1. So Marcus Noland was right.  They want tall buildings.

2. For several years now I have been tracking construction in Pyongyang.  See hereherehere, herehereherehere, and here.

UPDATE 2(2010-7-28): According to the Daily NK the construction has come to a halt:

The construction of 100,000 homes in Pyongyang has been put on hold due to a lack of cement. According to a Daily NK source, the project is around 40 percent complete.

The year’s aim is to finish 35,000 households out of the total 100,000 planned for construction. Work is due for completion by 2012.

The North Korean authorities had planned to construct 20,000 houses along the railroad from the Ryongseong-district via Seopo in the Hyeongjesan-district to the Ryeokpo-district and 25,000 houses in the center of the city. The schedule for laying the foundations has been set for September this year with plastering and interior works running until the end of the year.

The frame work of the houses, expected to finish by September, have been suspended due to lack of cement and other materials. A source commented that, “It was planned that general construction of frame works would finish in September but exterior construction has been halted due to a lack of materials.”

The North’s authorities have attempted to supply materials through the Sangwon Cement Complex, the Chollima Steel Mill Complex and other factories across the country. Annual production of cement in North Korea amounts to 6.4 million tons, approximately 12 percent of South Korea’s. However this is not enough to fuel general construction of key facilities such as social infrastructure and military facilities.

Large scale power plant constructions such as the Heecheon Power Plant combined with the building of 100,000 houses in Pyongyang have meant the shortage of cement is particularly acute.

Last year the North established the Pyongkeon Development Investment Group, attracting 320 million dollars of foreign capital. According to the plan submitted by the Group, 300,000 tons of cement are needed for foundation work in March alone.

Chosun Shinbo, the publication of the Chongryon (General Association of North Korean Residents in Japan), reported the construction of 35,000 houses was started in September last year. Since then, old houses in the districts have been torn down and neighborhoods rezoned. In March, the foundations of the houses were laid and the exterior frame work was built but construction has made little progress throughout June due to low cement levels.

The 100,000 household construction project in Pyongyang has been led by Jang Sung Taek, Director of the Ministry of Administration of the Workers’ Party, later appointed as the Vice-chairman of the National Defense Commission earlier this year at the Supreme People’s Assembly.

A source reported that, “Jang Sung Taek ordered foreign currency earning organizations to procure cement and that even selling coal should be considered.”

North Korea launched the state project to construct 100,000 houses in Pyongyang as a symbol of completion of the strong and prosperous state as part of a three-year campaign. Additionally, this project has been advertised as an achievement of the successor, Kim Jong Eun. If the plan fails then it will be a blow to the succession. If construction is suspended completely in advance of the Delegates’ Conference, happening in September, the image of Kim Jong Eun could be damaged.

UPDATE 1 (2010-5-2): Pyongyang’s 2012 renovations

Barbara Demick, Los Angeles Times correspondent and author of the very interesting and enjoyable Nothing to Envy, was the first western journalist to write about Pyongyang’s construction boom and the DPRK’s goal of achieving a strong and prosperous nation  by the time of Kim Il-sung’s 100th birthday in 2012.  The article is a bit dated, but I thought it would be fun to go back and point out all of the construction projects she mentioned in Pyongyang (plus a few more).

Below are some blurbs from Demick’s article supplemented with satellite imagery:

Blurb 1: “Yet these days, high-rise apartments in shades of pink are taking shape near the Pueblo, the American spy ship captured in 1968 and still anchored in the river. A tangle of construction cranes juts into the skyline near Pothong Gate, a re-creation of the old city wall. About 100,000 units are to be built over the next four years.”

I have already blogged about the new housing near the Potong Gate (see here).  Here is the housing near the Pueblo (click on images for larger versions):

pueblo-housing-4-6-2005.JPG  pueblo-housing-11-12-2006.JPG  pueblo-housing-1-28-2009.JPG

The dates of the pictures are 4/6/2005, 11/12/2006, 1/28/2009). The original Los Angeles Times story had a picture of the completed building but that does not appear to have been archived.  Kernbeisser got a photo of the building under construction.

Blurb 2: “But South Korean companies and individuals have mostly ignored the political chill. Among the biggest players here are a unit of the Hyundai conglomerate, which operates the resort where the shooting occurred, and companies affiliated with the Rev. Sun Myung Moon’s Unification Church, which also runs a car assembly plant in North Korea [Pyonghwa Motors]. The church last year completed work on what it calls the World Peace Center, behind the Potonggang Hotel, also owned by church affiliates.”

You can see a satellite image of Pyonghwa Motors plant near Nampo here.

Here is an image of the Potonggang Hotel.

Here is the World Peace Center.

Blurb 3: A Chinese company, meanwhile, is renovating the No. 1 Department Store in the heart of downtown.

Here is an image of Department Store No. 1.

Blurb 4: The Taedonggang Hotel, where Soviet dignitaries stayed in the 1960s and which burned down in 2002, is being restored as a five-star hotel. The Pyongyang Grand Theater, which stages revolutionary operas, is under renovation. The oldest and most elegant of the city’s movie theaters, the Taedongmun Cinema, was restored over the summer and used for screenings at the Pyongyang International Film Festival, which opened here last week.

Here are satellite images of the Taedonggang Hotel reconstruction:

taedong-hotel-8-6-2005.JPG taedong-hotel-11-12-2006.JPG taedong-hotel-12-26-2006.JPGtaedong-hotel-1-28-2009.JPG

Kernbeisser offers a great visual contrast between the hotel’s past and future. Click the links for images.

Here is an image of the Pyongyang Grand Theater under renovation.

Of course these places only scratch the surface of construction work in the DPRK in the last few years. I started to make a list of construction and refurbishment projects, but it got very long very fast.  Since I have other things to do on this lovely Sunday afternoon you will have to wait for me to get around to it at a later date.

ORIGINAL POST (2009-10-20): According to KCNA:

General Secretary Kim Jong Il went round newly-built apartment houses in Mansudae Street.

Saying that the newly-built apartment houses of new styles in the street are the most modern ones which fully reflect the plan and intention of the Party to provide the people with the best living conditions, he added that those apartment houses in the street serve as a model and standard for building dwelling houses to be used by all the people in a great prosperous and powerful nation.

He said that it is necessary to build in Pyongyang modern flats for 100,000 families, houses similar to those apartment houses standing in Mansudae Street, in a matter of a few years as an immediate task.

He expressed great expectation and conviction that all builders of the capital city would create new “Pyongyang Speed” in the era of Songun in the construction of the capital city and usher in “an era of prosperity of Pyongyang” in the new century just as the people created the world-startling “Pyongyang Speed” in the 1950s by building a flat for a family in just 14 minutes true to the Party’s policy of prefabricated construction after the war and as the people in the 1970s and the 1980s opened up “an era of prosperity of Pyongyang” by building many modern streets and great monumental edifices in a matter of 15 years and thus demonstrate once again to the whole world the revolutionary spirit of the service persons and people of the DPRK, successors to the great history and tradition.

 

The goal of constructing 100,000 flats has been repeated in KCNA since then: December 5, 2009, January 22, 2010, February 6, 2010, March 18, 2010.  In KCNA they have been careful not to declare a specific deadline for completion, but (thanks to a reader) in the monthly magazine Korea they have set Kim Il-sung’s 100th birthday in 2012 as the date.

I have blogged about and mapped the construction on Mansudae Street.  You can see the inside and outside of these buildings here.

So where will all these flats be located, and what does the construction look like? Below I have posted a GeoEye satellite image from Google Earth which highlights the residential construction areas (in yellow).

 

100-thousand-housing-overview-thumb.jpg

Click image for larger version

So it looks like the majority of the residential construction will be located in Hyongjiesan-kuyok (형제산 구역) in the north and Rakrang-kuyok (락랑 구역) in the south.

According to the June 7, 2010 DPRK evening news, it looks like soldiers are involved in the construction.  No surprise there.  It is unclear how many are involved.  Based on the image below I will let the “professionsals” determine which brigades are involved in the work:

 

construction-worker-2010-6-7.jpg

According to the same evening news broadcast, it looks like the workers have reached the second floor of at least one of these construciton areas.

As with the post-explosion reconstruction of Ryongchon (see images here),  the North Korean government is tearing down traditional, single-family houses and building “modern” high-rises in their place.  At this point the status of the former residents is unclear. Have they been moved into temporary housing (assuming they will get new flats once they are completed) or have they been permanently relocated to make room for the 100,000 lucky families?  (This method of residential development reminds me of Ceauşescu’s Romania.)

4-10-2009-py-housing-thumb.jpg

12-20-2009-py-housing-thumb.jpg

Click images for larger versions.  Top: April, 10, 2009  Bottom: December 20, 2009

Looking at the urban geography of the area I get the feeling that Jane Jacobs would be very disappointed.

 

hyongjiesanhousing-2009-thumb.jpg

Click image for larger version (rotated 90 degrees  –  so “north” is on the right, “south” on the left)

It seems like the new residents of the northern part of Hyongjiesan will be de facto residents of Sopho even though the railway line makes them separately distinct neighborhoods.  Sopho offers the closest train station and market. Residents at the southern end of the Hyongjiesan housing project will need to use a smaller market near the Sopyong Train Repair Factory (See satellite image here) and the West Pyongyang Railway Station.  Although the railway line defines the eastern border of Hyongjiesan District as of today there are only two places where commuters may cross over the tracks—at the West Pyognyang and Sopho Railway Stations. The distance between these two railway crossings is 3 miles (4.82 kilometers).

As of now, it appears there is little industry and few schools this far out of the city, so it is probable that most of the residents will be commuting into town.  However, none of the new housing is metro accessible.  Sopho receives bus service and the West Pyongyang Station receives bus and tram service. However the bus from the West Pyongyang Station to the Sopho Station lies to the east of the new housing and is separated by three miles of railway.  Adding more bus stops between the two stations and providing more railway crossings from the east side to the west side of the tracks would be very helpful in reducing the amount of walking residents would need to take. Somehow, I do not think that will happen.

As for the buses, with only one line to service 100,000 families look for them to be crowded.  It is possible that a commuter rail-line could easily transport workers to the center of town (like in Hamhung), but that might be wishful thinking at this point.

And finally, although the 100,000 families that do end up living in these homes will theoretically enjoy newer, higher-quality housing, their movements in and out of the buildings can be more easily monitored by inminban (인민반) than those in the single-family homes. In the traditional single-family homes there are multiple avenues to enter and leave the neighborhood, but when everyone uses the same door to enter and leave, residents’ activities can be more easily monitored.

So why not build more high-rises in the center of town where people actually work? These kinds of planning snafus are reflected in most socialist cities and are (unfortunately) predictable. To learn more about the urban economics of planned cities, I recommend not just  Jane Jacobs but also “The Urban Dimension of the North Korean Economy: A Speculative Analysis” by Bertrand Renaud.  Read his full chapter here.  Lots of good stuff from them.

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